Study Questions Week 9

The order of the mix and matches will be changed for the final, but the content will be the same.

 

1.  Mix and Match (use each number/letter combination once and pick the best fit)

Pathogen

1.  Legionella pneumophilia

2.  Campylobacter sp.

3.  Salmonella typhi

4.  fecal coliform bacteria

5.  Enteric viruses

6.  Giardia lamblia

7.  Meningitis

Result/description

A.  Only inhabits the human digestive tract and may be spread by asymptomatic carriers

B.  Protozoan that is not killed by chlorine.  Causes diarrhea within 1 week of ingestion of cysts.

C.  Does not necessarily cause disease, but may indicate human or animal wastes in the water.

D.  This pathogen is the leading bacterial cause of diarrhea in the United States.  In one case study in Clark County, Neveda, it was found in the Thanksgiving dinner because the turkey wasn’t adequately cooked and raw eggs were used in the stuffing.

E.  Outbreaks are caused by breathing in aerosols, such as from showers.  People with diabetes, smoking, bronchitis, emphysema, cancer, etc. are more susceptible.

F.  An infection of the fluid surrounding the brain or spinal cord.  Can be caused by a virus or bacterial infection.

G.  Intestinal pathogens that need a host to reproduce, lack independent metabolism, and have a simple acelluar organization.

 

2.  How is chloroform formed, how do its effects differ in male and female mice, and how were these differences studied?

 

3.  Mix and Match.  Some “pollutants” will be used more than once, and some “results” will require more than 1 “pollutant.”  Some pollutants won’t be used at all.

Pollutants

1.  Organophosphate

2.  PBDE

3.  DES

4.  Pb

5.  PCB

6.  Dioxin

7.  Sulfur

8.  DDT

9.  Cd

10.  Alar

11.  Salt

12.  Hg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Result/description

   

A.  (Structure above) Breaks down into metabolites that cause egg shell thinning.  The parent compound and the metabolites are persistent and fat soluble.

B.  Chlorinated hydrocarbons used to insulate electric equipment because they are very heat resistant and unreactive.  A ban on production was implemented in 1977, but they are still found in potheads.

C.  They are not intentionally made, but are byproducts of processes such as combustion and are found in Agent Orange.

D.  Damages the thyroid and nervous systems in lab animals.  These are rapidly becoming more common in the Artic, human fat, and breast milk, with a 60 fold increase in levels in breast milk of Swedish women since 1972.  They may be found in automobiles, furniture, plastics, and textiles.

C.  These pollutants are found in high concentrations in Beluga whales in the St. Lawrence River.  The 500 remaining Beluga whales are on the edge of extinction, and when biopsied, were found to suffer from tumors, cancers, and ulcers.

E.  Examples are PCDDs and PCDFs; and they are the most toxic of the organochlorines.

F.  Japan has had problems from these pollutants in cooking oil, in fish as the result of a catalyst at a chloralkali plant, and in rice as a result of mining.

G.  These environmental estrogens caused the near extinction of alligators in Lake Apopka.

H.  Inorganic compounds used as pesticides for centuries, maybe millennia.

I.  Paul Mueller received the noble prize in medicine for discovery of this pesticide.

J.  Developed in 1944, they are toxic to the nervous systems of insects and cause repeated firing of nerves.  They don’t bioaccumulate in fat, but unfortunately, are quite toxic to mammals.

K.  Are known for their environmental persistence, bioaccumulation, relatively high toxicity at low concentrations, and relatively non-toxicity to humans.

 

4.  Diagram and explain two ways that xenoestrogens can disrupt cell signaling or hormone function.

 

5.  Describe 2 strategies, including their advantages and disadvantages, for cleaning up trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene from contaminated soil at the Savannah River Site.

 

6.  Describe the estrogenic effects of DDT and estradiol, using Lake Apopka and a lab study of alligator eggs.

 

7.  What are the components of BTEX?  Describe one method employed to clean up BTEX from the vadose zone or ground water.

 

8.  Give three specific reasons related to chemical properties to explain why whales have high concentrations of PCB’s, pesticides, and mercury.

 

9.  List the four primary classes of pesticides based on chemical structure.  To which of these four classes do the pesticides Parathion and DDT belong?