BACKGROUND, MONUMENTS (not for examination)
ROMAN basilica: Basilica Ulpia, Rome, Forum of Trajan, c. 112
Late Roman Imperial architecture: Trier, Audience Hall of Palace, c. 300 axial focus
EARLY MEDIEVAL ARCHITECTURE
Carolingian Architecture (part of the Early Medieval period)
- 2-story basilicas
- Rome, St. Peter's, c. 330
- Ravenna, Sant'Apollinare Nuovo, 6th c. (Early Christian basilica type)
- Torcello, Cathedral of Sta. Maria Assunta, 11th c. (Early Christian basilica type)
- Tribune basilicas
- Reichenau, Sankt Maria, 9th c. (Carolingian)
- Rome, Sant'Agnese, 4th and 7th c. (tribune basilica)
- Vignory, 11th c. (tribune basilica), Romanesque
- Reims, St-Remi, 1005 (tribune basilica)
- Plan of St. Gall, c. 819
- church has two apses, one at each end, square schematism
- Centula, St.-Riquier, 799
- westwork dedicated to the cult of the Savior, tower grouping at both ends, choir before the apse, outer crypt added probably in the 11th c.
- Corvey, westwork 873-85; crypt and outer crypt c. 822-44
- Aachen, Palace Chapel, 792-805; original dedication to the Savior, re-dedicated to the Virgin and the Trinity; designed by Odo of Metz
- imperial tribune, central plan
- Ravenna, Sant'Apollinare in Classe, 7th c. (?) annular crypt around confessio
- St. Gall, c. 819, crank-shaped crypt
- Centula, St. Riquier, outer crypt probably 11th c.
- St Benôit-sur-Loire, crypt with confessio
- St. Philbert-de-Grandlieu, church begun in 814-19, 836 translation of bones of Philbert and crypt built 836-39, enlarged by 847 (monks flee Norse invasions in 858)
- Rome, Sta. Maria in Cosmedin, late 8th c. hall crypt
- Agliate, San Pietro, c. 1000, hall crypt
- Auxerre, St.-Germain, begun in c. 841; chapels en echelon and rotunda in 850-59
EARLY BEGINNINGS OF ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE
- transept types: continuous, demarcated (standard type), low
- Dijon, St.-Bénigne, (Burgundy) begun Feb. 14, 1001; basilica dedicated 1016, rotunda, May 13, 1018
Buildings related to Dijon, St.-Bˇnigne
- Abbot William of Volpiano, who was called to Dijon by the Bishop of Langres, 989 William referred to as "magistros conducendo et ipsum opus dictando"
- alterations in 12th c. (narthex added; perhaps also double aisles, crossing tower and walls reinforced); fall of small tower in 1096 or 1100
Gothic church after 1272 (fall of tower in 1272)
1792 rotunda demolished; some parts of crypt remained under rubble
1840s and 1896 excavations of crypt and its "rebuilding" (1858)
- illustrations of St.-Bénigne by Dom Urbain Plancher, 1739 other illustrations 1722
reconstructions based primarily on 11th-c. chronicle (compare 1 Kings 6 & 7:1-12) (3 Kings in the Vulgate)
- building is 128 (length) x 53 (width) x 40 (height) cubits (=c. 205 x 85 x 64'); nave (center-to-center) 42.5'; aisles 21.25'
lower church is 15' high
cubit = 48.82 cm or .1875"
- rotunda (17 m or 55.774') and outer crypt dedicated to St. John the Baptist, Virgin and all the Saints, and the Trinity; upper eastern chapel dedicated to St. Michael
- church--large basilica probably 3 aisled in form of a cross; 2-story elevation? tribune elevation unlikely; probable continuous transept; hemicycle with gallery opening to rotunda; western apse
- excavations and reconstruction discussed by Carolyn Marino Malone, "Les Fouilles de Saint-Bénigne de Dijon (1976-1978) et le probleme de l'église de l'an mil," Bulletin Monumental 138 (1980), 253-92
(still useful article on St.-Bˇnigne by Andrew Martindale, Journal of the British Archaeological Association, 25 (1962), 21-57)
- Cluny II (Burgundy)
staggered apse plan (chapels en echelon), dedicated in 981 140' length x 40' width x 53' height to top of vault (43' height to springing of vault). Originally surely timber roof, vaulted by 1040
- Flavigny St. Pierre (Burgundy), 1000-39, dedicated to Virgin and Trinity
outer crypt with hexagonal 2-story chapel, rebuilt from Carolingian period
- Verona, San Stefano (Veneto), late 10th c.
- ambulatory plan, extensive crypt with church above, tribune above hemicycle, doubleaux, vaults on columns
- Agliate, S. Pietro (Lombardy), c. 1000
hall crypt, Lombard masonry
(also cf. Aachen and the Pantheon, dedicated to th Virgin and all the Saints as St. Mary Rotunda on May 13)
- Strasbourg Cathedral (Rhine area; Alsace), c. 1015
- continuous transept, imperial scale, 2-story elevation
- Hersfeld (Franconia), 1037, continuous transept
- Châtillon-sur-Seine (Burgundy), c. 1020-40; Lombard bands
- Reims, St-Remi, 1005, and Vignory, 1030-40s, tribune basilicas (Champagne)
- Gernrode, St. Cyriakus (Saxony), c. 961, tribune basilica
- Hildesheim, St-Michael (Saxony), c. 990-1015
- Ottonian version of Early Christian basilica type
EARLY ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE--NORTH
FIRST OR EARLY ROMANESQUE--SOUTH (MEDITERRANEAN)
- Santa Maria de Ripoll (Catalonia) begun c. 1020, consecrated 1032; heavily restored 1886-9
- Abbot Oliba, brother of Wifred or Guifred, Count of Cerdaña, abbot of Cuxa (1008) and bishop of Vich (1018)
- large basilica with 5 aisles, continuous transept without pilasters or arches originally, and 7 apses
- St-Martin-du-Canigou, (eastern Pyrenees, French side)
- 1001-1009, a first campaign: eastern half of crypt and church, lowest part of tower.
- Oliba consecrates abbey in honor of St. Martin (upper church), Virgin Mary (crypt=lower church), and Archangel Michael.
- a second dedication in 1026: western crypt with cruciform piers, upper church, c. 1015-1026 (1015 institution of Benedictine rule) tower, c. 1030
- abandoned in 1782, materials "recycled" by local inhabitants, restored 1902-32 and 1952-82; now working monastery of "Community of the Lion of Judah and the Immolated Lamb"
- Guifred (or Wifred), Count of Cerdaña (Cerdagne), gave donations, became monk 1035, died in 1050 (see Stoddard, pp. 13-14, in Reader).
Oliba, abbot of Ripoll and Cuxa, bishop of Vich, and brother of Guifred installed monks from Cuxa. (cf. Southern, pp. 118ff, 121)
- small hall church, barrel vaulted with one cruciform pier in center, nave 20'h. x 10-11' wide;
- aisles 15-1/4'h x 6-1/2--7-1/2' wide
- crypt (lower church) eastern half groin vaulted, originally on columns, western half barrel-vaulted on cruciform piers
- Background buildings:
- Santa Maria de Naranco, Orviedo (Asturias) 843-50; altar dedicated 848
- Santa Maria de Melque, Toledo, 862-930; Mozarabic
- Ukhaidir, palace, c. 780;
- San Pedro de la Nave, Zamora (León), c. 691; Visigothic
- San Miguel de Escalada (León), dedicated 913.
- Santa Maria Lebaña (Castile), 924-63]
- Sant Vicens de Cardona (Catalonia), c. 1030
- said to have been re-established in 1019 by Viscount Bremond of Ausona (died 1029), but probably not begun until c. 1030; dedicated 1040 (but what?); hall church design
- a second campaign: nave clerestory added, 2nd half of the 11th century
- relatively large size, Lombard bands and Italian elements, barrel vault with clerestory, compound piers, and bay articulation (compare information under Speyer)
- nave 62' high x 24' wide x c. 160' long; aisles 40-2/3' high
- crypt 8 1/2' high x 21-2/3' wide x 33' long
- St.-Philibert, Tournus (Burgundy, on the Saone River), founded 875
- impossibly complicated building; present thinking:
- fire under Abbot Wago, c. 1007-8
- dedication 1019 under Abbot Bernier--crypt and east end? (ambulatory plan perhaps earlier)
- c. 1019-30, beginning of narthex and west facade
- c. 1030, beginning of upper narthex (St. Michael's Chapel, c. 1030-35) with decision to rebuild the old Carolingian nave (Abbot Ardain, 1028-1056)
- 1030's nave begun, perhaps c. 1050 completed; arcade about 40' high
- late 11th c., transverse barrel vaulted added to nave; 59' high (Abbot Peter I, 1066-1107)
- 12th c., east end rebuilt (what? how much?); central tower, north tower of west facade
- ambulatory plan, Mediterranean influences in narthex, complicated vaulting systems in narthex and later in nave (nave originally with diaphragm arches?), bay division in upper narthex, 2-tower west facade, impressive height of nave
- Architecture related to Tournus
- Ambulatory plan develops from outer crypt schemas.
- Early examples of ambulatory plan with radiating chapels at
- Clermont-Ferrand, 946
- St-Maurice d'Agaune, 940s
- Chartres Cathedral, c. 1020
- Rouen Cathedral, c. 1030
- Diffusion from lost example in the Loire?? e.g., Orléans Cathedral?
- Chapaize (Burgundy), c. 1030-40, barrel-vaulted nave on short round piers, bay division and wall arch (formeret)
- Cluny II (Burgundy), perhaps vaulted under Odilo (d. 1049), c. 1040; 2-tower narthex, c. 1015
- Strasbourg Cathedral, c. 1015, 2-tower west facade
- Jumièges, Notre-Dame (Normandy), begun between 1028 and 1037 under Abbot Thierry from Bernay; nave c. 1052-67; dedicated in 1067
Abbot Robert of Jumièges (1037-44) called to England in 1044 to become bishop of London and then Archbishop of Canterbury in 1051; died 1052 and buried in choir
vaulted in the 17th c.; choir excavated in 1927
- tall (82') nave, timber-roofed tribune elevation with diaphragm arches making double bays (bay=36 Roman feet, 34' 10" square), alternation with compound piers, ambulatory without chapels, two-tower facade with tribune in between
- Buildings related to the architecture of Jumièges
- St. Remi at Reims and Vignory (tribune elevation)
- Gernrode, Hildesheim St. Michael's (alternation)
- Nivelles, St. Gertrude (Belgium)
begun c. 1030, dedicated in 1046; east transept and choir built after 1046
Ottonian double transept plan; low transepts; tall arcade, square piers; diaphragm arch in middle of nave (probably Italian influence), exterior articulation with large arches
- Lomello (Lombardy), c. 1050-60 (diaphragm arches)
- Pisa Cathedral, Santa Maria Maggiore (Tuscany)
- Florence Cathedral Baptistery (Tuscany)
- begun 1059, 2 lower stories to cornice by 1093; 1093-1128, upper parts built
- Neo-Antique-looking structure and decoration, loggia and passage in thickness of wall,
- a hollowing out to create a double-wall construction, derived from late Antiquity (e.g., Sant'Aquilino, Milan)
- San Miniato, Florence (Tuscany)
- begun 1014-18 (but probably only eastern wall of crypt); became Benedictine in 1018
- 2nd campaign, 1070-1100: lower part of facade, aisle walls, and choir to clerestory level (patronage of countess Mathilda of Tuscany, 1069-1115)
- 3rd campaign, 1128-1150, second story of facade, nave arcade, clerestory of choir and nave
- pavement in 1207
- 2-story basilican design with diaphragm arches, timber-roof; no bays but division into 3 large units by diaphragm arches; elaborate surface decoration
- Lomello, Santa Maria Maggiore (Lombardy), c. 1050-60
- probably two campaigns--c.1050-60 and later
- 2-story basilican elevation, pilaster strips create bay division, elliptical piers, diaphragm arches
- Modena Cathedral of San Geminiano (Emilia)
- patroness was Countess Mathilda of Tuscany (1069-1115).
- begun 1099, consecrated 1184, east end remodelled first quarter of 13th c.; ribbed vaults with transverse arches added in 15th c.
- 3 apses, 3-aisled, 3-storied basilica with false tribunes, alternation, originally timber-roofed on diaphragm arches
- Sant'Abbondio, Como (Lombardy)
- became Benedictine in 1035; rebuilding begun in 1070s, dedication 1095 (choir finished later)
- 5-aisled plan, elevation with staggered volumes, Lombard masonry, no bays; large Benedictine
- choir with choir towers; originally 2-story narthex at west
- Milan, Sant'Ambrogio (Lombardy)
- enormous dating controversy: much rebuilding in 9-11th centuries; uncertain chronology:
- a "new" nave complete by 1093; atrium finished by 1098; earthquake 1117, damage debated;
- canon's tower (N) in works in 1128--built in line with older nave aisle wall; then nave rebuilt or remodelled after 1128; narthex rebuilt c. 1150; older dome fell in 1195/6 and rebuilt in 13th c.
- extensively restored in 1813-66; nave 19m high, bay width 15m
- king of the Lombards crowned here
- San Marco, Venice (Veneto)
- begun in 1063, consecration in 1073 (walls and piers); late 11th and early 12th c. for colonnades; mosaics 12th and 13th c.; after 1204 (plunder of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade) narthex at west end extended along flanks of nave and facade elaborated and domes built higher
Byzantine Greek-cross plan with 5 domes (quincunx plan)
first church of 830 probably modeled after the Apostoleion in Constantinople; compare to St. John's, Ephesus, 6th c.; to enshrine newly "obtained" relics of St. Mark, founder of patriarchal sees of Grado and Aquileia; domes on pendentives with high drums and windows; domes separated by segments of barrel vaulting; 6th-c. Byzantine spaciousness; large hall crypt, wide opening into transept, and western extension are adjustments made for Western needs
ITALO-BYZANTINE INFLUENCES IN WESTERN FRANCE (initiation at Cahors Cathedral?)
- St-Etienne-de-la-Cité, Périgueux (Périgord)
- begun c. 1100/1110, bishop of Cahors on Crusade in 1095ff
- succession of domed bays with pointed arches, large span, spacious (west bay=60 1/2 x 63 1/2; ht. to dome 81')
- St-Front, Périgueux (Périgord)
- after fire of 1120, c. 1125 (Late Romanesque?)
- Greek-cross plan probably from San Marco, domes with windows; ashlar dome rather than Byzantine brick construction
- 81 1/4' h. x 60 1/2 w. x 63 3/8' l.
- St-Savin-sur-Gartempe (Poitou) 1060s-80s
- hall church typical of the Poitou, e.g. Notre-Dame la Grande, Poitiers
"CLASSIC" SYNTHESES OF ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE--c. 1060-c. 1100
also called "High Romanesque"--large, highly articulated buildings, developed plans
THE PILGRIMAGE ROAD CHURCH TYPE
large cruciform tribune churches with aisled transept, ambulatory plan with radiating chapels, bay division, barrel-vaulted nave, groin-vaulted aisles and quadrant vaulted tribunes; usually ashlar built. Completely articulated structure and volumes, inside and outside. Hemicycle has 3-story elevation with clerestory windows; nave is two-story and lacks clerestory.
- Limoges, St.-Martial (Limousin)
- begun c. 1065/70, dedicated in 1095; first known example of type.
- Santiago de Compostela Cathedral, St. James (Galicia, in NW Spain). 77'h x 291-1/2 l.
- body of St. James said to be found in c. 810.
- begun 1078, east end 1078-1088; 1100 work begun again, after 1112 crossing finished, by 1128 church nearly finished. See Guide.
- first architects named Bernard and Robert.
- Alfonso VI, King of Aragon, contributed large sums.
- very large transept, 3 aisles.
- Toulouse, St-Sernin (Languedoc)
- begun 1078/82; 1096 dedication of high altar--probably lower parts of east end and transept finished; c. 1105-10, change of plan from 3 aisles to 5 aisles (influence from Cluny III?), also pointed arch used in diaphragm arch of tribunes; c. 1118 exterior walls of outer aisles and lower zone of west facade; during 2nd quarter of 12th c. barrel vault finished. Restoration in 19th c.--roofs remade and 17th c. alterations removed by Viollet-le-Duc. In 13th century 3 Romanesque stories of tower capped by 2 more stories. 1990s restoration to remove Viollet-le-Duc's work.
- Nave 68' high; church 359' long.
- Conques, Ste.-Foi (Languedoc)
- probably c. 1080-1140 (choir probably rebuilt in c. 1140); smallest of this type of church, but very tall: 68' high, 173' long.
- western towers added in the 19th c.
- (Also part of this group, the destroyed church of St. Martin at Tours and several others, e.g., Aurillac, Rodez, etc.)
CLUNIAC ROMANESQUE, Cluny III as the model
3-story (blind) triforium elevation with clerestory, bay division with fluted pilasters (Neo-Roman decoration), pointed barrel vault with groin-vaulted aisles, pointed arch in arcade and transverse arches.
LATE BURGUNDIAN ROMANESQUE
- Vézelay, La Madeleine, c. 1120
- 2-story elevation, groin-vaulted nave, rich decoration; nave 60' high x 34' span
NORMAN ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE
- Mont-Saint-Michel, nave, begun 1063; 18th-c. collapse of 3 western bays
- St-Etienne, Caen (Abbaye-aux-Hommes)
- founded c. 1064, construction probably not begun until after the Conquest, early 1067; Lanfranc of Pavia appointed abbot Oct. 1066 (and elected Archbishop of Canterbury in 1070); rib vaults added in c. 1125-30.
- 3-story tribune elevation with clerestory passage and new thick-wall construction ("mur épais"). aisles groin-vaulted, tribunes quadrant-vaulted; open, strongly plastic architecture; 2-tower west facade; originally groin-vaulted choir, chapels-en-echelon plan; lantern tower with triforium and passage, a second wall passage above.
THE NORMAN CONQUEST--ANGLO-NORMAN ARCHITECTURE
- St. Albans Cathedral, dedicated to St. Alban (Hertfordshire)
- begun 1077, 550' long; walls 7' thick
- thick-wall architecture; triforium elevation in nave and transept; timber roof
"orthodox" Norman architecture in England: tribune elevation, timber-roofed, bay division, thick- wall architecture with clerestory passage
- Winchester Cathedral of Trinity, Sts Peter, Paul, and Swithin (Hampshire)
- begun 1079, relics of St. Swithin transferred to new church in 1093, King William Rufus buried in church 1100, crossing town collapsed in 1107
- Ely Cathedral (East Anglia)
- choir begun 1083, finished by 1106 when relics of St. Etheldreda translated to high altar, nave c. 1104-c. 1135. Nave: 72' h. x 40' span; 537' long
LATE ROMANESQUE DEVELOPMENTS
Further late Romanesque churches
- Durham Cathedral and Benedictine monastery (North England)
- Norman bishop appointed in 1071. St. Cuthbert moved here in 995 (originally buried at Lindisfarne).
- Norman church begun in 1093, choir finished in 1104 when shrine of Cuthbert transferred, nave built c. 1110-1133, with nave rib vaulting added 1128-33 nave: 39' span x 73' h.
3-story tribune elevation with tall arcade and alternating piers, timber-roofed tribune in choir (and nave, or originally quadrant-vaulted?) and clerestory with passage. First rib vaults in Western Europe in choir (probably stimulated by contacts with the Islamic world), aisles and central vessel of choir. Rib vaults later extended to nave; vaults in eastern bays' about 20" thick, western nave vaults about 12-16" thick; rich linear patterns everywhere, increased in nave
Rib-vaulting spreads in England and to Normandy, sexpartite vaulting system used at St.-Etienne, Caen, c. 1125-30.
Another type of rib vaulting used in the Mediterranean areas, probably developed from Roman sources and independent from the Anglo-Norman type (Sant'Ambrogio, Milan).
At the same time that rib vaulting is used, groin vaulting is applied to the high, wide spans of naves
Speyer Cathedral ("Speyer II"), apse rebuilt after 1080 with exterior dwarf gallery; windows added c. 1096-98, dwarf gallery extended around church, and sometime after c. 1100 groin vaults built over two bays forming square units, a double-bay, alternating system
Vézelay, nave groin vaults, c. 1120
- Gloucester Cathedral (West of England)
- Benedictine monastery until 1541, then cathedral.
- choir 1089-1100, fire in 1122, nave probably thereafter; vaulted in 1242; choir recased 1337-50 in the Perpendicular Style; nave: 68' high x 34' span
Choir: 3-story tribune elevation without bay division (groin-vaulted aisles, quadrant-vaulted tribune) nave: 3-story triforium elevation with triforium passage and superposed clerestory passage (not open triforium like Mont-Saint-Michel's), non-bay-divided thick-wall structure; timber roof originally; tall arcade
- Southwell Minster (Nottinghamshire)
- choir begun c. 1110, nave c. 1130-40
- non-bay-divided thick-wall structure; tribune elevation, timber roof
- Workshop Priory (Nottinghamshire) late 12th c.
- 3-story tribune elevation, bay division emphatically irrelevant
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